Welcome to the Climate Disobedience Center. The purpose of the Center is to serve as a catalyst for direct action, creating points of vivid moral clarity, emboldening both climate activists and the unlikeliest of allies, to capture the heart and soul of the climate debate.

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  • Featured post

    Post Election Strategy Conversation (Round 2)

    In this post, Climate Disobedience Center Founders engage one another in conversation about our individual initial thoughts on post-election strategy. We have decided to have this conversation publicly and openly. We are not running our ideas or words by one another before we post them because we know that our best strategies emerge through conversation. We hope you will engage this conversation in the comments sections of the blog posts associated with this discussion. The original Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy post will serve as the table of contents for all posts related to this discussion. You can use it as a reference point to help you find other threads of the conversation.

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  • Featured post

    Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy (Tim DeChristopher)

    These are my first thoughts, and I hope you will share your ideas. For links to post-election thoughts from my fellow Climate Disobedience Center Founders and updates on the conversation, click here.

    With the election of Donald Trump, we are entering a different chapter for the climate movement in this country, one in which we will be fighting against a substantially different kind of power structure than previous administrations.  Many of the lessons and principles developed in previous struggles will still be applicable, and some will be more important than ever.  But some of our strategies, tactics and even organizing structures may have to be completely rethought.  We’ve got some ideas about moving forward, but we still have a lot of unanswered questions as well.  Answering some of these might take imagination and creativity, and others might take an agonizing wait to find out just how despotic a Trump regime will be.

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  • Featured post

    Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy (Marla Marcum)

    These are my first thoughts, and I hope you will share your ideas. For links to post-election thoughts from my fellow Climate Disobedience Center Founders and updates on the conversation, click here.

    When we launched the Climate Disobedience Center, I argued that we should define “disobedience” more broadly than “civil disobedience” because we need to build a culture of resistance to business-as-usual in our communities. Post-election, I think it’s important to return to this idea – that building principled communities founded on love and the commitment to support one another to disrupt business-as-usual is disobedience. We need to prioritize working with people to develop loving and resilient communities of resistance in order to foster the courage and support that will be required to hold on to the gains we’ve made to date and perhaps even to carve out a few wins against an emboldened fossil fuel industry along the way.

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  • Featured post

    Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy (Jay O'Hara)

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    These are my first thoughts, and I hope you will share your ideas. For links to post-election thoughts from my fellow Climate Disobedience Center Founders and updates on the conversation, click here.

    Before jumping into post-election analysis a short reality-grounding. I want to start with a bit of context of where we are with the climate - the life support system for all of humanity which in it’s unraveling is bringing and will bring devastation and death in epic proportions to the most vulnerable populations around the globe first. Consider this week’s news that we’ve broken the North Pole: it’s running 36°F hotter than normal right now. It is clear we need dramatic action NOW - not four years from now. But how do we get there?

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  • Featured post

    Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy

    Like pretty much everyone else in the climate movement, the election of Donald Trump has caused us at the Climate Disobedience Center to think long and hard about our strategy for moving forward.  We are not all on the same page yet, and we're not comfortable pretending that we've got things figured out.  We offer our thoughts and conversation via our posts (linked below), and our conversation will continue as updates (we'll add the links here). Please feel free to offer your own thoughts about anything we said, or anything we missed, in the comments sections for each post. 

    Tim DeChristopher's Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy

    Marla Marcum's Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy

    Jay O'Hara's Thoughts on Post-Election Strategy

    Stay tuned for thoughts from Ken Ward

     

    Follow the discussion: In Post-Election Strategy Conversation (Round 2), we engage in some back-and-forth conversation about the ideas each of us shared in the posts linked above.

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  • Featured post

    Statement of Ken Ward at his Arraignment

    Statement of Ken Ward at his Arraignment on Charges of Burglary, Criminal Trespass, Sabotage and Assemblages of Saboteurs 

    October 20, 2016 in Mt. Vernon, WA 

    I have been charged by the Prosecuting Attorney for Skagit County, Washington with four crimes - burglary, criminal trespass, sabotage and assemblages of saboteurs - for my action last Tuesday, closing a safety valve on the TransMountain pipeline and blocking the flow of Canadian tar sands oil from Alberta to the Anacortes refineries. 

     

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  • Featured post

    Support Direct Action and the #SHUTITDOWN Activists

    PLEASE SHARE! These activists, their support team, and documentarians NEED YOUR HELP FOR BAIL - DONATE NOW: http://www.shutitdown.today/donate

    Support_More_Direct_Action_Donate.jpg

     

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  • Featured post

    Democracy Now: Jay O'Hara and Afrin Sopariwala Discuss #SHUTITDOWN Action

    Watch Jay O'Hara and Afrin Sopariwala discussing the #SHUTITDOWN action on today's episode of Democracy Now! Transcript and full episode audio and video are available here.

    DemocracyNow! Show Notes:

    Ten climate activists were arrested Tuesday for attempting to shut down all tar sands oil coming into the United States from Canada by manually turning off pipelines in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota and Washington state. The group, which calls itself Climate Direct Action, includes five activists and five other supporters and videographers. They posted pictures and videos online that showed them cutting chains and turning the manual safety valves to stop the flow through the pipelines. The activists issued a statement on Tuesday saying the action was in support of the call for International Days of Prayer and Action for Standing Rock. They also called on President Obama to “use emergency powers to keep the pipelines closed and mobilize for the extraordinary shift away from fossil fuels now required to avert catastrophe." While all 10 activists remain in jail, we speak Jay O’Hara, co-founder of the Climate Disobedience Center, and Afrin Sopariwala, a member of Climate Direct Action and a part of Women of Color Speak Out, a climate justice collective.

    Democracy Now! is an independent global news hour that airs weekdays on nearly 1,400 TV and radio stations Monday through Friday. Watch our livestream 8-9AM ET: http://democracynow.org

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  • Featured page

    The Climate Necessity Defense: A Legal Tool for Climate Activists

    This guide is intended as an educational resource for climate dissidents. It offers information about the legal system and presents the experiences of certain environmental activists. Before planning any action, take stock of your situation, your community, and your capacity. If you are arrested, you are committing yourself to the federal and/or state criminal legal system, which may have consequences that include a conviction, jail, and/or probation. Act accordingly. If you are not able to deal with the consequences of arrest, don’t risk it. Activism can take many forms, so be honest with yourself about how you can be most effective in fighting for a just and healthy world.


    **
    Please be aware that this guide is not legal advice and does not form an attorney-client relationship. ** 

    What is the climate necessity defense? 

    The climate necessity defense is an argument made by a criminal defendant to justify action taken on behalf of the planet. It’s offered by activists who have been arrested for protesting fossil fuel extraction and government inaction on climate policy.

    The climate necessity defense is associated with the tradition of civil disobedience — the deliberate violation of the law to confront a moral problem. People who commit civil disobedience believe that they are obeying a higher moral law or code. Sometimes the existing criminal law doesn’t align with this higher morality, and so disobedience is required in order to live morally. Climate necessity defendants argue that their actions were not really illegal: they were acting in the public interest, which the law protects.Instead of seeking a plea agreement or trying to win an acquittal, defendants offering the climate necessity defense admit their criminal conduct but argue that it was necessary to avoid a greater harm. The basic idea behind the defense — also known as a “choice of evils,” “competing harms,” or “justification” defense — is that the impacts of climate change are so serious that breaking the law is necessary to avert them.

    By admitting their conduct and asking a judge or jury to find them not guilty by reason of necessity, activists draw attention to injustice and the failure of the law to protect the planet.

    Because the climate necessity defense asks people to make judgments about individual responsibility, legal obligation, and the good of society, it is essentially a moral argument couched in the language of criminal law.

    How does it work?

    The rules governing the use of the necessity defense vary by state and by court. Always check with a lawyer to figure out which jurisdiction your case would fall under and what sorts of special requirements apply for attempting the defense.

    In general, this is what the process looks like:

    1. Arrest
    2. Not guilty plea
    3. Offer necessity defense to judge
    4. Present defense to jury
    5. Conviction or acquittal

    1. Arrest: You’re arrested while committing your act of civil disobedience. This is part of the process — you want to both prevent continued climate change and have a chance to use the legal system to further your views.

    2. Not guilty plea: Within a short time after your arrest, you will face an arraignment or preliminary hearing to learn about the charges that the state is bringing against you — for example, trespassing at a private facility. Activists preparing for a climate necessity defense will plea not guilty to the charges.

    3. Offer necessity defense to judge: After arraignment, the prosecution and the defense will start to prepare for trial. There will likely be a series of pre-trial hearings where lawyers will hash out various technical matters, like what sorts of evidence they want to present. During this stage, you and your attorney will tell the judge that you plan to present a climate necessity defense: this is called the offer, proffer, or notice of intent to present a defense.

    The judge will probably hold a hearing on whether to allow your defense. You will present arguments about why the defense is acceptable and should go to a jury, and the prosecution will try to show that your defense of justification is unacceptable. This is a crucial stage: the judge gets to decide whether or not you have the right to argue that your crime was justified. Before your case ever gets to the jury, your argument may be dismissed “as a matter of law”: in other words, because the judge doesn’t think your defense is appropriate. On the next page we explain the factors that play into this decision.

    4. Present defense to jury: If the judge allows your defense to go forward, you’ll be all set to go to trial. You’ll finally have a chance to tell your side of the story and to present evidence about the dangers of climate change, the reasons behind your action, and why civil disobedience was required. Activists often bring in experts such as climate scientists to testify about the harms of global warming. Remember: you’ll be admitting that you technically broke the law, but you’ll be asking to be found not guilty because your actions were justified. This is your opportunity to educate the jury and to discuss the moral reasons behind your action.

    5. Conviction or acquittal: Once you’ve finished your defense, the jury (or, in the case of a bench trial, the judge) will take time to deliberate. They’ll consider the evidence you’ve presented and the strength of your arguments for justification. Then you’ll find out whether you’ve been found not guilty by reason of necessity. 

    What’s the argument? 

    You may have noticed that that the judge has lots of control at step : he or she can decide whether you’re allowed to present your necessity defense at all. To clear this hurdle, you’ll need to prove that a reasonable juror would accept your justification argument. This is a preview of the argument you’ll give to the jury at step . Although the exact requirements vary by jurisdiction — again, always consult a lawyer — the basic steps in the argument are as follows: 

    • You need to prove that you faced a serious danger. For example, a defendant might argue that burning coal poses a serious threat to humans and the planet. Most courts require defendants to present some evidence that this danger is imminent — in other words, that it is near and certain, rather than distant and speculative.

    • Next, you need to demonstrate that you reasonably expected your illegal protest to avert this serious danger. For example, a defendant might argue that he believed that disrupting a gas lease auction would prevent increased drilling.

    • You must also show that there were no legal alternatives to your criminal conduct — that civil disobedience was necessary because nothing else would work. For example, a defendant might argue that lobbying or signing petitions could not have prevented the construction of a pipeline, so she had to form a blockade.

    • Finally, many courts require you to prove that there is no public policy against your defense. Basically, this requires you to show that there is no law saying that the necessity defense is unavailable for your specific charge. For example, there is rarely a law saying that trespassing can never be justified by necessity.

    So what’s the point?

    The legal technicalities of the climate necessity defense can get a bit complicated. But at its most basic level, the defense allows activists to call attention to and explain the reasons behind their climate disobedience. Because courts are public institutions designed to serve the common good, they can be an excellent forum in which to address society and educate people about climate change. 

    Traditionally, the American jury was seen as a democratic institution that gave ordinary citizens a voice in the criminal justice system. This is less true today, when most cases end in plea agreements and judges exercise enormous power over the types of arguments that defendants can present. But in the rare instances in which defendants are able to defend their conduct to a jury of their peers, they enjoy tremendous success both in winning acquittals and in drawing attention to injustice.

    Climate activists are driven by concern for society and the planet. By presenting a necessity defense — that is, describing the dangers of climate change, the lack of effective legal remedies, and the importance of individual action — activists in effect put the government on trial. If such an argument succeeds, it sends a very powerful message about the need for political change and the value of personal initiative.

    So while the necessity argument is technically a form of criminal defense, what’s really happening when activists defend their climate disobedience is democracy in action, with citizens using the direct confrontation of a courtroom to discuss the most pressing issue of our time.

    Does it really work?

    As of the writing of this pamphlet, the climate necessity defense has succeeded only once, in the United Kingdom in 2008. Although it hasn’t yet worked in the United States, there’s good reason to think it will soon.

    As described earlier, an activist attempting a climate necessity defense will plead not guilty to her charges and will notify the judge that she wishes to present a necessity defense. The judge will decide as a matter of law whether to allow the activist to use the defense — that is, whether the criminal statute under which the activist has been charged allows the necessity defense at all, and whether a reasonable juror could possibly find the defense to be valid (step ). Because judges enjoy a wide range of discretion at this stage in the criminal process, most attempts at the necessity defense have failed here, before the jury ever hears the activists’ arguments.

    So keep this in mind: the climate necessity defense is a novel legal tool that hasn’t yet succeeded in any court in the United States.

    But there’s cause for hope. In the past, activists have been found not guilty by reason of necessity for protesting issues like nuclear weapons, CIA recruitment, and apartheid. Once they were able to describe their civil disobedience to a jury, protesters were often able to prove that their minor crimes of trespassing or disorderly conduct were justified in light of the serious injustices that they were facing. But in each case, it took the courts several years to catch up to public opinion and to allow the activists to present their necessity arguments to a jury. Luckily, it looks like courts are finally starting to reach this point in cases involving protests against climate change:

    Signs of hope . . .

    In 2007, six activists painted the prime minister’s name on the chimney of an English coal plant to draw attention to climate change. A year later, a jury found that their actions were justified because of the serious dangers posed by climate change. Because the jury thought that causing property damage to a coal plant was a relatively minor crime compared to the harms caused by global warming, the activists were acquitted. 

    In 2011, activist Tim DeChristopher attempted to use the necessity defense to justify his disruption of a federal gas lease auction in Utah. DeChristopher argued to the judge that the jury should hear about the government’s illegal leasing practices and the large amount of carbon dioxide that would be released into the atmosphere if drilling were allowed. Rather than permit these arguments in the courtroom, the judge denied the defense as a matter of law (step in the process described earlier). But the attempt garnered international attention and inspired similar protests — ultimately resulting in the cancellation of the leases and the successful conservation of pristine land.

    In 2013, activists Jay O’Hara and Ken Ward used a lobster boat to block a coal shipment to a Massachusetts power plant. In the months following their arrest, it was announced that the coal plant was shutting down. The following year, the activists prepared a climate necessity defense for the jury, and their defense was approved by the judge – meaning they cleared step allowing them to present a necessity case in court. But on the morning of their trial, the prosecutor dropped all charges and said that O’Hara and Ward’s action was morally justified. This surprising turn of events indicated a reluctance to punish protesters for defending the climate and a growing acceptance of the reasoning behind the necessity defense. 

    In 2014, Alec Johnson faced trial for locking down to a piece of heavy machinery along the Keystone XL Pipeline route in Oklahoma. His protest and subsequent trial galvanized pipeline opponents across the country. Although the judge rejected his necessity defense, resulting in a conviction on two minor charges, Johnson faced no jail time and his support team was able to cover the cost of his fines.

    In 2015, eleven activists arrested during the Flood Wall Street protests in New York had their charges of disorderly conduct dismissed after refusing to obey police orders to leave the street. Once again, the judge in this case rejected the necessity defense at step , deciding that the protesters’ actions were not reasonably expected to avert climate change. But in dismissing the charges for other reasons, the judge made a point of noting the serious dangers posed by climate change and commended the activists’ moral conviction. In other words, the protesters were able to use the necessity defense to broadcast the issues they cared about and the necessity of civil disobedience, and they avoided any punishment for their protest.

    What we learn from these cases is that, although the climate necessity defense has not yet been put before an American jury, the courts are starting to come around. In the Massachusetts and New York cases, the protesters’ attempted use of the necessity defense drew attention to their cause, and their moral arguments eventually won out.

    As our climate crisis worsens, drastic action is needed to force those in power to do something before it is too late. For activists convinced that civil disobedience is part of the solution, the climate necessity defense can be an important tool to defend and publicize their actions. And as soon as the first activist manages to successfully use the necessity defense at trial, it will become a powerful precedent for future defendants to justify their moral lawbreaking.

    Okay, I want to try to use the defense. What should I do?

    The first thing to keep in mind is that there are no guarantees when it comes to the legal system. You very well may not be able to present the climate necessity defense at all. You should only engage in civil disobedience if you are able to accept the full legal consequences of your behavior.

    You should also consider whether you are prepared to be a spokesperson for your cause. Because the climate necessity defense turns upon your personal motivations and convictions, you should be ready to have your ideas and emotions scrutinized in court and in the media. Make sure you are confident in your beliefs and that you are able to articulate the reasons why you have turned to civil disobedience.

    And most importantly: always consult a lawyer. Attorneys can’t give you advice about how to commit a crime, but you can ask them general questions about the law of necessity. Have a sympathetic attorney on call for when you are arrested, and never speak to the police or prosecutors without your lawyer present.

    With those points in mind, here are some practical considerations for activists interested in attempting the climate necessity defense:

    Create a track record of legal efforts to solve the problem. You’ll have to prove in court that you made a good-faith effort to do everything short of committing civil disobedience. Learn the history of your campaign, collect evidence of past efforts to remedy the problem, and exhaust the traditional avenues of persuasion.

    Know the law of your jurisdiction. It’s easier to argue necessity in certain places than in others, so learn the exact requirements of your jurisdiction. You should also familiarize yourself with what laws are in effect regarding the industry or government practice you’re protesting, as the judge will want to know whether or not allowing your defense would conflict with established public policy.

    Conduct your protest in a responsible manner. The tradition of civil disobedience is based on non-violence and respect. In court, you’ll be evaluated on the manner in which you conducted yourself during moments of high tension. Anything that suggests aggression or intolerance will look bad to a jury. Pay attention to the images you present, the language you use, and the arguments that you make.

    Document your action. You’ll want definitive proof of what happened during your protest so that you can show the court and the jury that you acted responsibly — and to make sure that the police aren’t the only ones telling your story. Have your support team photograph and film your action where possible, and create a written record immediately after the protest has ended.

    Act like a good citizen. Deliberately breaking the law is a highly controversial tactic, and any additional resistance you offer to the police, prison staff, or court employees will reflect negatively on your character. Allies turn up in unlikely places, so use your time in the criminal justice system to change minds, not to harden hearts. In court, conduct yourself accordingly: be respectful, act humbly, and demonstrate love for your fellow human beings.

    And throughout your planning and defense, the Climate Disobedience Center is here to support you . . .  

    The Climate Disobedience Center is dedicated to confronting the climate crisis at the point of injury. We provide logistical and legal support for activists engaged in peaceful disobedience. Our goal is to create a community of climate dissidents prepared to put their bodies on the line for the planet.

    If you’re thinking about attempting a climate necessity defense, get in touch with us for organizing support and legal resources.

    And check out our website, climatedisobedience.org, for guidance and more information on activists who have attempted the climate necessity defense and to learn about our circle of resistance.

    Creative Commons License

    The Climate Necessity Defense by the Climate Disobedience Center is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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  • @LindsayAPerry tweeted link to this page. 2016-12-06 20:14:09 -0500
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=19429
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-12-01 07:24:29 -0500
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-11-02 15:46:36 -0400
    I just joined the Climate Disobedience Center. climatedisobedience.org
  • @iluvsolar tweeted link to this page. 2016-11-02 15:46:33 -0400
    I just joined the Climate Disobedience Center. climatedisobedience.org http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=17024
  • commented 2016-10-12 10:55:53 -0400
    A social movement worthy of my support. Our officials in government needs a wake up call. Thank you for all your actions to protect our environment
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-09-29 20:29:29 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-08-12 10:59:10 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-08-05 07:53:26 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • @BoultR tweeted link to this page. 2016-08-05 07:53:23 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=12278
  • commented 2016-06-01 21:52:29 -0400
    Any plans for the GOP convention in July?
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-04-27 12:43:39 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-04-12 20:21:52 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • @jmar8265 tweeted link to this page. 2016-04-12 20:21:49 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=5109
  • posted about this on Facebook 2016-03-17 16:34:56 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies
  • @LuanaConley tweeted link to this page. 2016-03-17 16:34:53 -0400
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=4654
  • commented 2016-01-28 13:34:47 -0500
    If someone dies or is injured by my CND actions, am I liable? If someone attacks me when I protest can I cause them bodily harm? If tourists visitng the US come from a country that refuses to recognize the climate danger posed by their actions can I take actions against those tourists who obviously voted in their leaders and who themselves are thus allowing their fellow citizens to violate our climate? Where does the CND end?
  • commented 2016-01-28 13:33:40 -0500
    If someone dies or is injured by my CND actions, am I liable? If someone attacks me when I protest can I cause them bodily harm? If tourists visitng the US come from a country that refuses to recognize the climate danger posed by their actions can I take actions against those tourists who obviously voted in their leaders and who themselves are thus allowing their fellow citizens to violate our climate? Where does the CND end?
  • @donaldjdzepeda tweeted link to this page. 2016-01-26 16:45:47 -0500
    Check out the Climate Disobedience Center! a catalyst for direct action to emboldening activists and unlikely allies http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=3685
  • commented 2016-01-26 12:10:11 -0500
    Keep it up. Organize more widely and largely. Keep looking at how to press the issues off of the streets and into mainstream public awareness until the real political (funded) acts necessary to relief from the juggernaut of destruction become fully defined for the politicians still too afraid to admit reality and find their own obligations of strength.
  • @akclimateaction tweeted link to this page. 2016-01-12 13:41:12 -0500
  • commented 2016-01-11 21:03:31 -0500
    Great coverage on today’s Democracy Now. www.democracynow.org Jan 11, 2016
  • @hellogregory tweeted link to this page. 2015-12-04 15:05:28 -0500
  • @nanohelixcode tweeted link to this page. 2015-11-06 22:27:32 -0500
  • posted about this on Facebook 2015-11-04 13:10:44 -0500
    If you are serious about fighting climate change you might be interested in joining this group
  • @renate_brown tweeted link to this page. 2015-11-04 13:10:39 -0500
    If you are serious about fighting climate change you might be interested in joining this group http://www.climatedisobedience.org/?recruiter_id=1710
  • commented 2015-09-22 00:39:23 -0400
    Keepitintheground! Great campaign which dovetails nicely with 350.org campaign next spring 2016
  • posted about this on Facebook 2015-09-19 20:32:12 -0400
    Here is a new resource for those of us who see the need for creative climate justice activity.
  • posted about this on Facebook 2015-09-18 16:47:12 -0400
    Home
  • @crazywisdom72 tweeted link to this page. 2015-09-18 16:47:09 -0400
  • commented 2015-09-18 15:20:00 -0400
    “War becomes perpetual when used as a rationale for peace,” Norman Solomon. “Peace becomes perpetual when used as a rationale for survival.” Yours truly.

    It does not take a climate scientist or even a particularly bright bulb on the street to see that Capitalism, unrestrained by the requirements of Planetary life support systems, is guaranteed mutually assured destruction. When dollars are sacrosanct to Planetary life support systems, what other outcome can be expected? Socially enabled capitalism is clearly a failed paradigm. Help end tax funded pollution of the commons for starters. Our tax dollars are funding a Planetary ecocide future for the children of ALL species.